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BREEDING GUIDELINES (as of 9 Feb 2022)

The below criteria are set by the Breeding Committee of the Lapphund Club of Finland and are applied when a breeder would like to have their intended litter approved by the Breeding Committee. Note that the Committee will only handle approval requests for litters with Finnish-registered parentage. Approvals are given prior to the mating taking place only (not for litters already on the way or born).

GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR ALL THREE BREEDS

The Breeding Committee of the Lapphund Club of Finland will not approve for breeding:
- An aggressive animal (reported by a dog show judge or otherwise known to be aggressive)

The Breeding Committee of the Lapphund Club of Finland will not recommend for breeding:
- An animal with a high-risk pedigree for inherited diseases
- A cryptorchid dog
- An animal with an undershot or overshot bite
- A mating that would result in an eight-generation inbreeding coefficient of over 6.25%
- A repeat mating. The following also count as repeat matings:
    - Combining full siblings to the same partner
    - Combining a parent and its offspring to the same partner

Recommended age and time limits (a Breeding Committee approval can be obtained if the following criteria are fulfilled):

- A bitch must be at least 20 months old at the time when the approval request is sent to the Breeding Committee (note that 20 months is the minimum age and it is preferable to wait until the bitch is at least three years old). This allows for a two-month handling time before the minimum breeding age of 22 months is reached. Any health testing required by the PEVISA programme (Finnish Kennel Club’s programme against hereditary defects and diseases) must be done before the enquiry can be handled. The 22-month minimum breeding age is included in the PEVISA programmes of the Finnish Lapponian Dog and the Lapponian Herder.

- A dog must be at least 20 months old at the time when the approval request is sent to the Breeding Committee (note that 20 months is the minimum age and it is preferable to wait until the dog is at least three years old). This allows for a two-month handling time before the minimum breeding age of 22 months is reached. The 22-month minimum breeding age is included in the PEVISA programmes of the Finnish Lapponian Dog and the Lapponian Herder.

- If both the dog and the bitch are younger than 24 months, no approval will be given

- A Breeding Committee approval given to a first-time whelper expires the day she turns six. The mating has to take place before the sixth birthday in order for the approval to be in effect. Enquiries for first-time whelpers older than six years will not be handled at all.

- A Breeding Committee approval given to any bitch that is about to turn eight years old expires the day she turns eight. The mating has to take place before the eighth birthday in order for the approval to be in effect. The Finnish Kennel Club requires a veterinary certificate (granted before the mating) for a bitch over eight years old.

- There has to be a ten-month rest period between whelpings at the minimum. A new stud dog enquiry can be handled when at least eight months have passed since the previous whelping.

1. All stud dog enquiries are handled as “official” (i.e. no informal enquiries) and the approved breedings are published.
2. Replies to enquiries are always provided in writing (by email).
3. All enquiries are handled on an ASAP basis.
4. An enquiry is handled based on the health information available at that moment and it is valid for six months (unless new information becomes available). The breeder of the intended litter is requested to notify the Breeding Committee if any new health information regarding the litter becomes available.
5. A stud dog owner can send in an enquiry regarding an intended litter that the stud dog has been asked to sire.
6. Any dog owner can contact the Breeding Committee to enquire about the health risks associated with their dog’s pedigree.
7. The Breeding Committee will not provide any additional suggestions for stud dogs unless specifically requested.

The Breeding Committee can, at their discretion, deviate from the breeding guidelines if there is a justified reason for it.

A dog intended for breeding has to be health checked as per the current PEVISA regulations (Finnish Kennel Club’s programme against hereditary defects and diseases) prior to the mating. A Finnish Lapponian Dog male over seven years old can get a dispensation from PEVISA health testing provided that he has no previous progeny. The litter must be otherwise eligible for Breeding Committee approval (i.e. it is only exempt from PEVISA testing while all other criteria must be met).

The Breeding Committee recommends that a request sent in by a breeder include between three to six suggestions for a stud dog (older dogs with few or no previous progeny preferred). First-time breeders do not necessarily need to include any suggestions. All suggestions should be sent in at the same time. However, if only one of the suggestions gets approved by the Breeding Committee, the breeder can provide additional suggestions within one month of receiving the first reply from the Breeding Committee.

If none of the stud dogs suggested by the breeder is approved, the Breeding Committee will provide their suggestion, if so requested by the breeder.

BREEDING GUIDELINES FOR THE FINNISH LAPPONIAN DOG

EYES

Suitable for breeding:

- A dog with a clear eye certificate
- A dog diagnosed with one of the below diseases provided that the mate does not have the same diagnosis:
• Iris-to-iris PPM
• PHTVL/PHPV grade 1
• MRD
• GRD
• Minor hereditary cataracts ((punctate, suture line tips, suture line, nuclear ring, nuclear fiberglass-like/pulverulent)
• Iridocorneal angle abnormality (ICAA), moderate or mild. Mating partner of an affected dog must be tested clear of ICAA with gonioscopy before the mating.
• Entropion/Trichiasis
• Dermoid
• Distichiasis/Ectopic cilia, mild
• Iris hypoplasia
• Vitreal degeneration
• Ectropion/Macroblepharon
• Corneal dystrophy (epithelial or stromal)

Not recommended for breeding:
- A dog diagnosed with any of the below eye diseases:
• PRA
• Cataracts (posterior polar, cortical, nuclear, congenital or total (= cortical and nuclear boxes ticked on the ECVO form) cataracts)
• Iris-to-lens PPM
• Iris-to-cornea PPM
• Iris-to-lamina PPM
• Distichiasis/Ectopic cilia, severe
• TRD
• PHTVL/PHPV grades 2-6
• CEA, coloboma
• Glaucoma
• Iridocorneal angle abnormality (ICAA), severe. Progeny of a dog diagnosed with a severy grade of ICAA must be tested with gonioscopy before breeding from them.
• Keratitis
• Optic nerve coloboma
• Hypoplastic/Micropapilla
• Corneal dystrophy (endothelial)

A mating will not be approved in the following cases:
- If there are known carriers of cataracts (posterior polar, cortical, nuclear, congenital or total cataracts) in the first or second generations on both sides of the pedigree of the intended litter
- If there are known carriers of any other type of PRA than prcd-PRA in the first or second generations on both sides of the pedigree of the intended litter

If a dog has two eye test results out of which the first diagnosis is more severe than the second, the more severe one is considered valid until the dog is examined by the Finnish Kennel Club eye panel. The eye panel result is then final. If the diagnosis is marked Suspicious on the ECVO form, Finnish Kennel Club guidelines on having the diagnosis confirmed are applied.


Prcd-PRA

- A prcd-PRA clear dog (marked “a” if clear by parentage, or “A” if gene tested) can be mated to an untested one. A pending approval can be given to an untested dog (subject to either one or both of the parents of the intended litter getting gene tested with a clear status (A) before the mating takes place)

- A prcd-PRA carrier (marked “b” if carrier by parentage, or “B” if gene tested) or a dog with an unknown prcd-PRA status must only be bred to a clear one (either clear by parentage “a” or gene tested “A”). A pending approval can be given to an untested dog (subject to either one or both of the parents of the intended litter getting gene tested with a clear status (A) before the mating takes place)


HIPS

It is recommended that the average of the intended parents’ combined estimated breeding values (EBVs) exceed 100. EBVs for hips are available in the Finnish Kennel Club’s online database KoiraNet. If the dog has different FCI scores on the left and right hip, whichever is lower defines the total hip score.

Suitable for breeding:
- Hip scores of A and B
- Hip scores of C when combined to scores of A

Not recommended for breeding:
- Hip scores of D or E
- An arthritic dog


PATELLAS

Suitable for breeding:
- A dog that has not been patella scored but shows no signs of patella luxation
- A dog with a clear patella score (0/0)

Not recommended for breeding:
- A dog that has had its patellas operated on
- A dog with a patella score of 1 or more severe

If diagnosed under three years of age, a patella score of 1/0, 0/1 or 1/1 can be disregarded if the dog is re-examined with a score of 0/0 at the age of three years or older. In other cases (i.e. both scores given when the dog is older than three years, or at least one of the patellas has a patella luxation grade 2 or more severe) the more severe is considered valid until the dog is examined by the Finnish Kennel Club patella panel. The patella panel result is then final.


ELBOWS

Suitable for breeding:
- A dog that has not been elbow scored but shows no signs of elbow dysplasia
- A dog with a clear elbow score (0/0)

Not recommended for breeding:
- A dog that has not been elbow scored but shows signs of elbow dysplasia
- A dog with a score of 1 or worse on either elbow


SPINE

Lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LTV):
Suitable for breeding:
- A dog that has not been spine x-rayed but shows no signs of lumbosacral transitional vertebra
- A dog diagnosed with LTV grades 1-4 must only be bred to a clear one (LTV0) and must not show clinical symptoms

Not recommended for breeding:
- A dog that has not been spine x-rayed but shows signs of lumbosacral transitional vertebra
- A dog diagnosed with LTV grades 1-4 showing clinical symptoms

Spondylosis (SP):
Suitable for breeding:
- A dog that has not been spine x-rayed but shows no signs of spondylosis
- A dog spine x-rayed clear (SP0)

Not recommended for breeding:
- A dog that has not been spine x-rayed but shows signs of spondylosis
- A dog diagnosed with SP grades 1-4

Vertebral anomalies (VA):
Suitable for breeding:
- A dog that has not been spine x-rayed but shows no signs of vertebral anomalies
- A dog diagnosed with VA grade 1 must only be bred to a clear one (VA0) and must not show clinical symptoms

Not recommended for breeding:
- A dog that has not been spine x-rayed but shows signs of vertebral anomalies, or has been spine x-rayed and shows signs of vertebral anomalies
- A dog diagnosed with VA grades 2-4


TAIL KINK

Not recommended for breeding:

- A dog with a kinky tail


BITE

Not recommended for breeding:

- A dog with an undershot or overshot bite


UMBILICAL HERNIA

Not recommended for breeding:

- A dog whose umbilical hernia has been operated or requires an operation
- Two dogs that have a small (non-operable) umbilical hernia should not be combined


INGUINAL HERNIA

- Not recommended for breeding:

- A dog with inguinal hernia


HEART

Suitable for breeding:
- A dog that has not been heart tested (auscultation) but shows no clinical symptoms of heart disease
- A dog that has been heart tested (auscultation) and is clear of any cardiac murmur
- A dog diagnosed with a cardiac murmur of any grade (auscultation) provided that a Doppler ultrasound examination is performed and the dog is deemed clear.

Not recommended for breeding:
- A dog that has not been heart tested (auscultation) but shows clinical symptoms of heart disease
- A dog with a heart disease diagnosis from a Doppler ultrasound examination.


EPILEPSY

Not recommended for breeding:

- A dog affected with epilepsy
- Parents, full siblings and first-generation progeny of an epilepsy-affected dog


HYPOTHYROIDISM

Not recommended for breeding:

- A dog diagnosed with hypothyroidism
- First-generation progeny of a hypothyroid dog


ANY OTHER AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE

Inbreeding must be avoided as it is a risk factor for autoimmune diseases.

Not recommended for breeding:
- A dog showing symptoms of or having been diagnosed with any autoimmune disease
- Parents, full siblings and first-generation progeny of a dog affected with Addison’s disease or AIHA
- For autoimmune diseases other than Addison’s disease or AIHA, a risk analysis is carried out case by case based on the pedigree of the intended litter


CUSHING’S DISEASE

Not recommended for breeding:

- A dog showing symptoms of or having been diagnosed with Cushing’s disease
- Parents, full siblings and first-generation progeny of a dog affected with Cushing’s disease


ALLERGIES

Not recommended for breeding:

- A dog diagnosed with any allergy or atopy


POMPE DISEASE (GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE II, GSD II)

- A Pompe disease carrier (marked “b” if carrier by parentage, or “B” if gene tested) or a dog with an unknown Pompe disease status must only be bred to a Normal/Clear one (marked “a” if clear by parentage, or “A” if gene tested). A pending approval can be given to an untested dog (subject to either one or both of the parents of the intended litter getting gene tested with a clear status (A) before the mating takes place)


DEGENERATIVE MYELOPATHY (DM)

- A carrier-to-carrier breeding will not be approved (carriers by parentage are marked “b”, and gene tested carriers are marked “B”).
- A dog ”at risk” (marked ”c” if at risk by parentage, or ”C” if gene tested) must only be bred to a clear one (either clear by parentage “a” or gene tested “A”).


BREEDING GUIDELINES FOR THE LAPPONIAN HERDER

A Lapponian Herder intended for breeding has to be health checked as per the current PEVISA regulations (Finnish Kennel Club’s programme against hereditary defects and diseases) prior to the mating.


EYES

Suitable for breeding:

- A dog with a clear eye certificate
- A dog diagnosed with one of the below diseases provided that the mate does not have the same diagnosis:
• Iris-to-iris PPM
• PHTVL/PHPV grade 1
• MRD
• GRD
• Canine Multifocal Retinopathy (CMR)
• Minor hereditary cataracts (punctate, suture line tips, suture line, nuclear ring, nuclear fiberglass-like/pulverulent)
• Iridocorneal angle abnormality (ICAA), moderate or mild. Mating partner of an affected dog must be tested clear of ICAA with gonioscopy before the mating.
• Entropion/Trichiasis
• Dermoid
• Distichiasis/Ectopic cilia, mild
• Iris hypoplasia
• Vitreal degeneration
• Ectropion/Macroblepharon
• Corneal dystrophy (epithelial or stromal)
- A dog that has no eye certificate provided that the mate is clear

Not recommended for breeding:
- A dog diagnosed with any of the below eye diseases:
• PRA
• Cataracts (posterior polar, cortical, nuclear, congenital or total (= cortical and nuclear boxes ticked on the ECVO form) cataracts)
• Iris-to-lens PPM
• Iris-to-cornea PPM
• Iris-to-lamina PPM
• TRD
• PHTVL/PHPV grades 2-6
• Distichiasis/Ectopic cilia, severe
• CEA, coloboma
• Glaucoma
• Iridocorneal angle abnormality (ICAA), severe. Progeny of a dog diagnosed with a severe grade of ICAA must be tested with gonioscopy before breeding from them.
• Keratitis
• Optic nerve coloboma
• Hypoplastic/Micropapilla
• Corneal dystrophy (endothelial)

A mating will not be approved in the following cases:
- If there are known carriers of cataracts (posterior polar, cortical, nuclear, congenital or total cataracts) in the first or second generations on both sides of the pedigree of the intended litter
- If there are known carriers of any other type of PRA than prcd-PRA or ift122-PRA in the first or second generations on both sides of the pedigree of the intended litter

If a dog has two eye test results out of which the first diagnosis is more severe than the second, the more severe one is considered valid until the dog is examined by the Finnish Kennel Club eye panel. The eye panel result is then final. If the diagnosis is marked Suspicious on the ECVO form, Finnish Kennel Club guidelines on having the diagnosis confirmed are applied.


Prcd-PRA
- A prcd-PRA clear dog (marked “a” if clear by parentage, or “A” if gene tested) can be mated to an untested one. A pending approval can be given to an untested dog (subject to either one or both of the parents of the intended litter getting gene tested with a clear status (A) before the mating takes place)
- A prcd-PRA carrier (marked “b” if carrier by parentage, or “B” if gene tested) or a dog with an unknown prcd-PRA status must only be bred to a clear one (either clear by parentage “a” or gene tested “A”). A pending approval can be given to an untested dog (subject to either one or both of the parents of the intended litter getting gene tested with a clear status (A) before the mating takes place)
- In exceptional cases, a mating between two dogs with no prcd-PRA statuses can be approved if it widens the gene pool or is otherwise justified


Ift122-PRA
- An ift122-PRA clear dog (marked “a” if clear by parentage, or “A” if gene tested) can be mated to an untested one. A pending approval can be given to an untested dog (subject to either one or both of the parents of the intended litter getting gene tested with a clear status (A) before the mating takes place)
- An ift122-PRA carrier (marked “b” if carrier by parentage, or “B” if gene tested) or a dog with an unknown ift122-PRA status must only be bred to a clear one (either clear by parentage “a” or gene tested “A”). A pending approval can be given to an untested dog (subject to either one or both of the parents of the intended litter getting gene tested with a clear status (A) before the mating takes place)
- In exceptional cases, a mating between two dogs with no ift122-PRA statuses can be approved if it widens the gene pool or is otherwise justified


HIPS

If both the sire and dam of the intended litter has an estimated breeding value (EBV) available for their hips in the Finnish Kennel Club’s online database KoiraNet, it is recommended that the average of the intended parents’ combined EBVs exceed 100. If the dog has different FCI scores on the left and right hip, whichever is lower defines the total hip score.

Suitable for breeding:
- Hip scores of A or B
- Hip scores of C when combined with scores of A
- Two dogs without hip scores can be bred to each other as long as neither of the intended parents shows any signs of hip dysplasia

Not recommended for breeding:
- Hip scores of D or E
- An arthritic dog
- A dog showing any signs of hip dysplasia


PATELLAS

Suitable for breeding:
- A dog that has not been patella scored but shows no signs of patella luxation
- A dog with a clear patella score (0/0)

Not recommended for breeding:
- A dog that has had its patellas operated on
- A dog with a patella score of 1 or more severe

If diagnosed under three years of age, a patella score of 1/0, 0/1 or 1/1 can be disregarded if the dog is re-examined with a score of 0/0 at the age of three years or older. In other cases (i.e. both scores given when the dog is older than three years, or at least one of the patellas has a patella luxation grade 2 or more severe) the more severe is considered valid until the dog is examined by the Finnish Kennel Club patella panel. The patella panel result is then final.


ELBOWS

Suitable for breeding:
- A dog that has not been elbow scored but shows no signs of elbow dysplasia
- A dog with a clear elbow score (0/0)

Not recommended for breeding:
- A dog that has not been elbow scored but shows signs of elbow dysplasia
- A dog with a score of 1 or worse on either elbow.


SPINE

Lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LTV):
Suitable for breeding:
- A dog that has not been spine x-rayed but shows no signs of lumbosacral transitional vertebra
- A dog diagnosed with LTV grades 1-4 must only be bred to a clear one (LTV0) and must not show clinical symptoms

Not recommended for breeding:
- A dog that has not been spine x-rayed but shows signs of lumbosacral transitional vertebra
- A dog diagnosed with LTV grades 1-4 showing clinical symptoms

Spondylosis (SP):
Suitable for breeding:
- A dog that has not been spine x-rayed but shows no signs of spondylosis
- A dog spine x-rayed clear (SP0)

Not recommended for breeding:
- A dog that has not been spine x-rayed but shows signs of spondylosis
- A dog diagnosed with SP grades 1-4

Vertebral anomalies (VA):
Suitable for breeding:
- A dog that has not been spine x-rayed but shows no signs of vertebral anomalies
- A dog diagnosed with VA grade 1 must only be bred to a clear one (VA0) and must not show clinical symptoms

Not recommended for breeding:
- A dog that has not been spine x-rayed but shows signs of vertebral anomalies, or has been spine x-rayed and shows signs of vertebral anomalies
- A dog diagnosed with VA grades 2-4


TAIL KINK

Not recommended for breeding:

- A dog with a kinky tail


BITE

Not recommended for breeding:

- A dog with an undershot or overshot bite


UMBILICAL HERNIA

Not recommended for breeding:

- A dog whose umbilical hernia has been operated or requires an operation
- Two dogs that have a small (non-operable) umbilical hernia should not be combined


INGUINAL HERNIA

- Not recommended for breeding:

- A dog with inguinal hernia


HEART

Suitable for breeding:
- A dog that has not been heart tested (auscultation) but shows no clinical symptoms of heart disease
- A dog that has been heart tested (auscultation) and is clear of any cardiac murmur
- A dog diagnosed with a cardiac murmur of any grade (auscultation) provided that a Doppler ultrasound examination is performed and the dog is deemed clear.

Not recommended for breeding:
- A dog that has not been heart tested (auscultation) but shows clinical symptoms of heart disease
- A dog with a heart disease diagnosis from a Doppler ultrasound examination.


EPILEPSY

Not recommended for breeding:
- A dog affected with epilepsy
- Parents, full siblings and first-generation progeny of an epilepsy-affected dog


HYPOTHYROIDISM

Not recommended for breeding:
- A dog diagnosed with hypothyroidism
- First-generation progeny of a hypothyroid dog


ADDISON’S DISEASE AND CUSHING’S DISEASE

Not recommended for breeding:
- A dog diagnosed with either disease
- Parents, full siblings and first-generation progeny of an Addison’s/Cushing’s-affected dog


IMHA AND AIHA

Not recommended for breeding:
- A dog diagnosed with either disease
- Parents of an IMHA/AIHA-affected dog
- In special cases, full siblings of an IMHA/AIHA-affected dog can be bred from with caution provided that they are at least five to six years old and only have one litter. Progeny born from such a litter has to be followed up more carefully than usual and not be bred from until at a mature age.
- If there is more than one IMHA/AIHA-affected dog in a litter, a risk analysis is carried out case by case based on the pedigree of the intended litter and the breeding recommendation might be stricter than the one above.


ANY OTHER AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE

Inbreeding must be avoided as it is a risk factor for autoimmune diseases.

Not recommended for breeding:
- A dog showing symptoms of or having been diagnosed with any autoimmune disease
- For autoimmune diseases not mentioned above, a risk analysis is carried out case by case based on the pedigree of the intended litter


ALLERGIES

Not recommended for breeding:

- A dog diagnosed with any allergy or atopy


POMPE DISEASE (GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE II, GSD II)

- A Pompe disease carrier (marked “b” if carrier by parentage, or “B” if gene tested) or a dog with an unknown Pompe disease status must only be bred to a Normal/Clear one (marked “a” if clear by parentage, or “A” if gene tested). A pending approval can be given to an untested dog (subject to either one or both of the parents of the intended litter getting gene tested with a clear status (A) before the mating takes place)


DEGENERATIVE MYELOPATHY (DM)

- A carrier-to-carrier breeding will not be approved (carriers by parentage are marked “b”, and gene tested carriers are marked “B”).
- A dog ”at risk” (marked ”c” if at risk by parentage, or ”C” if gene tested) must only be bred to a clear one (either clear by parentage “a” or gene tested “A”).

BREEDING GUIDELINES FOR THE SWEDISH LAPPHUND

EYES

Suitable for breeding:

- A dog with a clear eye certificate
- A dog diagnosed with one of the below diseases provided that the mate does not have the same diagnosis:
• Iris-to-iris PPM
• PHTVL/PHPV grade 1
• MRD
• GRD
• Minor hereditary cataracts (punctate, suture line tips, suture line, nuclear ring, nuclear fiberglass-like/pulverulent)
• Iridocorneal angle abnormality (ICAA), moderate or mild. Mating partner of an affected dog must be tested clear of ICAA with gonioscopy before the mating.
• Entropion/Trichiasis
• Dermoid
• Distichiasis/Ectopic cilia, mild
• Iris hypoplasia
• Vitreal degeneration
• Ectropion/Macroblepharon
• Corneal dystrophy (epithelial or stromal)

Not recommended for breeding:
- A dog diagnosed with any of the below eye diseases:
• PRA
• Cataracts (posterior polar, cortical, nuclear, congenital or total (= cortical and nuclear boxes ticked on the ECVO form) cataracts)
• Iris-to-lens PPM
• Iris-to-cornea PPM
• Iris-to-lamina PPM
• Distichiasis/Ectopic cilia, severe
• TRD
• PHTVL/PHPV grades 2-6
• CEA, coloboma
• Glaucoma
• Iridocorneal angle abnormality (ICAA), severe. Progeny of a dog diagnosed with a severe grade of ICAA must be tested with gonioscopy before breeding from them
• Keratitis
• Optic nerve coloboma
• Hypoplastic/Micropapilla
• Corneal dystrophy (endothelial)

A mating will not be approved in following cases:
- If there are known carriers of posterior polar, cortical, nuclear, congenital or total cataracts in the first or second generations on both sides of the pedigree of the intended litter
- With regard to prcd-PRA, the following matings will not be approved: carrier (B/b) x affected (C/c), affected (C/c) x affected (C/c), or affected (C/c) x untested. An untested dog must only be bred to a clear one.

If a dog has two eye test results out of which the first diagnosis is more severe than the second, the more severe one is considered valid until the dog is examined by the Finnish Kennel Club eye panel. The eye panel result is then final. If the diagnosis is marked Suspicious on the ECVO form, Finnish Kennel Club guidelines on having the diagnosis confirmed are applied.


HIPS

A dog with a hip score of D or E, or an arthritic dog, cannot get an approval from the Breeding Committee. A dog with a hip score of C, or a dog without a hip score, can be bred to a dog that has no hip score as long as the mate shows no signs of hip dysplasia. If the dog has different FCI scores on the left and right hip, whichever is lower defines the total hip score.


POMPE DISEASE (GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE II, GSD II)

- A Pompe disease carrier (marked “b” if carrier by parentage, or “B” if gene tested) or a dog with an unknown Pompe disease status must only be bred to a Normal/Clear one (marked “a” if clear by parentage, or “A” if gene tested). A pending approval can be given to an untested dog (subject to either one or both of the parents of the intended litter getting gene tested with a clear status (A) before the mating takes place)

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